15q11.2 deletion is enriched in patients with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

Li X, Shi G, Li Y, Zhang X, Xiang Y, Wang T, Li Y, Chen H, Fu Q, Zhang H, Wang B.J Med Genet. 2020 May 6:jmedgenet-2019-106608. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106608. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32376791



Introduction: CNV is a vital pathogenic factor of congenital heart disease (CHD). However, few CNVs have been reported for total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC), which is a rare form of CHD. Using case-control study, we identified 15q11.2 deletion associated with TAPVC. We then used a TAPVC trio as model to reveal possible molecular basis of 15q11.2 microdeletion.

Methods: CNVplex and Chromosomal Microarray were used to identify and validate CNVs in samples from 231 TAPVC cases and 200 healthy controls from Shanghai Children’s Medical Center. In vitro cardiomyocyte differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for a TAPVC trio with paternal inherited 15q11.2 deletion was performed to characterise the effect of the deletion on cardiomyocyte differentiation and gene expression.

Results: The 15q11.2 microdeletion was significantly enriched in patients with TAPVC compared with healthy control (13/231 in patients vs 0/200 in controls, p=5.872×10-2, Bonferroni adjusted) using Fisher’s exact test. Induced pluripotent stem cells from the proband could not differentiate into normal cardiomyocyte. Transcriptomic analysis identified a number of differentially expressed genes in the 15q11.2 deletion carriers of the family. TAPVC disease-causing genes such as PITX2NKX2-5 and ANKRD1 showed significantly higher expression in the proband compared with her healthy mother. Knockdown of TUBGCP5 could lead to abnormal cardiomyocyte differentiation.

Conclusion: We discovered that the 15q11.2 deletion is significantly associated with TAPVC. Gene expression profile that might arise from 15q11.2 deletion for a TAPVC family was characterised using cell experiments.