Low prenatal detection rate of valvar pulmonary stenosis: What are we missing?

Ronai C, Freud LR, Brown DW, Tworetzky W.
Prenat Diagn. 2020 Apr 20. doi: 10.1002/pd.5715. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 32314369
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Objectives: Critical pulmonary stenosis (PS) and pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) require urgent neonatal intervention. Since PS may be more insidious than PAIVS during gestation, we hypothesized that neonates with PS would have lower rates of prenatal detection than PAIVS.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all neonates who underwent diagnostic or interventional cardiac catheterization between 2000 and 2014 for critical PS or PAIVS. The rates of prenatal diagnosis were calculated for PS and PAIVS. Prenatal and postnatal echocardiographic data were reviewed.

Results: 178 patients met inclusion criteria: 91 with critical PS and 87 with PAIVS. The prenatal diagnosis rate for critical PS was lower than for PAIVS at 37% (34/91) vs 60% (52/87) (P = .003). At the time of diagnosis at a median gestational age of 25 weeks, the median TV z-score for patients with critical PS was larger than in PAIVS (-0.15 vs -3.0 P = .004).

Conclusion: Critical PS had a lower prenatal detection rate than PAIVS, likely due to a relatively normal 4-chamber view at the time of routine second trimester screening in patients with PS. Color flow Doppler of the outflow tracts may improve detection, since outflow tracts may appear normal by 2D imaging.

source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32314369