Shenoy B, Singh S, Ahmed MZ, Pal P, Balan S, Vishwanathan V, Battad S, Rao AP, Chaudhuri M, Shastri DD, Soans ST.Indian Pediatr. 2020 May 28:S097475591600188. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32471961
Objectives: To formulate practice guidelines on diagnosis and management of Kawasaki disease (KD) for Indian children.
Justification: KD is a systemic vasculitis that predominantly affects infants and children less than 5 years of age. Coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) develop in around 15-25% of untreated children with KD. Coronary artery involvement can lead to long-term cardiovascular implications such as development of premature coronary artery disease. Diagnosis of KD is essentially clinical based on recognition of a constellation of characteristic symptoms and signs. Timely diagnosis and initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy is known to produce five-fold reduction in the incidence of CAA. As there is no confirmatory laboratory test for KD, the diagnosis may be missed if one is not familiar with the nuances of clinical diagnosis.
Process: A committee was formed under the auspices of Indian Academy of Pediatrics in early 2018 for preparing guidelines on KD in Indian children. A meeting of the consultative committee was held in Mumbai, and a draft protocol was devised. All members scrutinized the recent publications on the subject and an attempt was made to arrive at a broad consensus. Published guidelines on the subject were also reviewed.
Recommendations: The diagnosis is clinical and is aided by laboratory and 2D echocardiography. First line of therapy is IVIg, and should be started expeditiously once the diagnosis is made.