Left sinus of Valsalva-Electroanatomic basis and outcomes with ablation for outflow tract arrhythmias

Kapa S, Mehra N, Deshmukh AJ, Friedman PA, Asirvatham SJ.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2020 Apr;31(4):952-959. doi: 10.1111/jce.14388. Epub 2020 Feb 18.
PMID: 32048387
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Introduction: The ablation of outflow tract premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) is generally safe and effective. In some patients, successful ablation sites may not correlate with the earliest activation. We sought to evaluate mechanistic and anatomic relevance of the region below the left sinus of Valsalva in variable morphology outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias.

Methods: PVC cases where ablation was in the region inferior to the left sinus of Valsalva were identified. Procedural and demographic information and long-term outcomes were obtained. Cadaver dissections to evaluate regional anatomy were done as well.

Results: A total of 51 cases were included (age 53 ± 10; 37 [73%] males). Ablation was done for high PVC burden (>20%; mean 27% ± 8%) and presence of symptoms (73%) or ejection fraction less than 50% (78%). QRS morphology included either R wave (8; 16%), Rs (9; 18%), or rS (67%) in lead I, no precordial transition (40; 78%), V2 transition, (7; 14%), or V3 transition (4; 8%). In 31 (61%), the site just below the left coronary cusp was the earliest site, while the remainder had another site earlier. Ablation was acutely successful in 50 of 51 (98%). After 3 months, success was noted in 48 of 51 (94%). In two patients, repeat ablation in the same region resulted in durable suppression.

Conclusion: The cases presented emphasize the importance of a region centered below the left sinus of Valsalva, where multivariable morphology QRS may be successfully ablated. Consideration of mapping and ablation even when signals are late in this region may be warranted in previously failed ablation attempts or first-line evaluation.