Recent advances in three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping guidance for the ablation of complex atrial and ventricular arrhythmias

Compagnucci P, Volpato G, Falanga U, Cipolletta L, Conti M, Grifoni G, Verticelli L, Schicchi N, Giovagnoni A, Casella M, Guerra F, Dello Russo A.J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2020 May 26. doi: 10.1007/s10840-020-00781-3. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32451799



Purpose: To provide a brief overview of some relevant technological advances in the field of three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping (3D-EAM) that have recently entered the clinical arena and their role in guiding catheter ablation (CA) of complex atrial and ventricular arrhythmias.

Methods: In this technical report, we describe the general features of three novel algorithms featured in the updated CARTO PRIME™ mapping module for CARTO®3 version 7 3D-EAM system (Biosense Webster Inc., Diamond Bar, CA, USA): local activation time (LAT) hybrid, coherent mapping and map replay modules. We also report three challenging arrhythmia cases in which CA was successfully guided by these softwares.

Results: The LAT hybrid module was used in a case of premature ventricular complex originating from the right coronary cusp. This algorithm facilitated safe positioning of the ablation catheter away from the right coronary ostium, avoiding potential harm to this vital structure. The coherent mapping module helped to identify the critical as well as a bystander isthmus of an atrial macro-re-entrant tachycardia in a grown-up patient with congenital heart disease. The map replay module allowed rapid retrospective activation mapping of two unstable ventricular tachycardias in a case of nonischemic cocaine-associated cardiomyopathy.

Conclusion: 3D-EAM systems offer significant advantages in the management of challenging arrhythmias, and the introduction of novel algorithms underpins improvements in patients’ outcomes. Given the increasing sophistication of these systems, however, a close collaboration among cardiac electrophysiologists, engineers and technicians is highly needed in order to get the best from the available technology.