Relationship Between Left Ventricular Geometry and Invasive Hemodynamics in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension

Burkett DA, Patel SS, Mertens L, Friedberg MK, Ivy DD.Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2020 May;13(5):e009825. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.119.009825. Epub 2020 May 15.PMID: 32408829



Background Ventricular septal flattening, frequently present in pulmonary hypertension (PH), can be quantified using eccentricity index (EI). EI has not been evaluated by concurrent echocardiography and cardiac catheterization and traditionally does not account for postsystolic septal flattening, often seen in PH. We evaluated left ventricular shape, including a novel measure of maximal EI to account for postsystolic septal flattening, to establish the relationship with concurrent invasive hemodynamics. Methods Echocardiography was performed at 2 institutions in 78 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization and in 78 matched controls. From midpapillary parasternal short-axis views, EI and right-to-left ventricular diameter ratio were assessed. Results EI and right-to-left ventricular measures were significantly increased in PH compared with controls. Shape measures correlated with invasive hemodynamics and PH outcome measures (PH-related hospitalization, functional class, medical therapy escalation, and BNP [brain natriuretic peptide]). End-systolic EI of 1.16 best identified the presence of PH, whereas a maximal EI of 1.42 and 1.94 best identified half-systemic and systemic PH, respectively. A maximal EI of 1.27 was associated with an odds ratio of 16.16 (95% CI, 6.62-39.46) for PH-related hospitalization or escalation of therapy. Conclusions Using simultaneous echocardiography and catheterization in the largest study population to date, we demonstrate that EI and right-to-left ventricular ratio correlate with invasive hemodynamics and outcomes measures, and EI can accurately define those with clinically important PH. These measures strengthen the ability of echocardiography to identify and follow pediatric PH patients, especially in the absence of methods to quantify right ventricular systolic pressures.