An adult female with 5q34-q35.2 deletion: A rare syndromic presentation of left ventricular non-compaction and congenital heart disease

Arya P, Wilson TE, Parent JJ, Ware SM, Breman AM, Helm BM.
Eur J Med Genet. 2020 Apr;63(4):103797. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2019.103797. Epub 2019 Oct 22.
PMID: 31654754
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Terminal and interstitial deletions of the 5q35 region have been rarely reported in the literature. While a delineated phenotype has been suggested, the range of clinical presentations is unknown due to overall rarity. Cardiac features are of interest because haploinsufficiency of the NKX2-5 gene, located at 5q35.1, has been implicated in congenital heart defects with or without conduction disease. Previous case reports of similar deletions included primarily infants and young children and longitudinal clinical and developmental phenotypic data are currently lacking. We report on a 24-year-old female, the first described adult case with an interstitial 5q34-q35.2 deletion and the third reported case where the cytogenetic abnormality is specified using chromosomal microarray analysis. We include details of her cardiac, developmental, and craniofacial phenotypes. The patient is diagnosed with mild intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, limitations in fine and gross motor skills, minor malformations of facial features, and a cardiac phenotype with conduction disease, congenital heart disease, and left ventricular non-compaction dilated cardiomyopathy. This report also reviews the overlapping features in previously published 5q35 deletions and, importantly, provides deeper insight into distal 5q deletions.