Hansen JE, Brown DW, Hanke SP, Bates KE, Tweddell JS, Hill G, Anderson JB.J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 May 18;9(10):e014823. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014823. Epub 2020 May 8.PMID: 32384002
Background The routine use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) during palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome is controversial. We sought to describe ACEI prescription in the interstage between stage 1 palliation (stage I Norwood procedure) discharge and stage 2 palliation (stage II superior cavopulmonary anastomosis procedure) admission using the NPC-QIC (National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative) registry. Methods and Results Analysis of all patients (n=2180) enrolled in NPC-QIC from 2008 to 2016 included preoperative anatomy, risk factors, and echocardiographic data. ACEI were prescribed at stage I Norwood procedure discharge in 38% of patients. ACEI prescription declined from 2011 to 2016 compared with pre-2010 (36.8% versus 45%; P=0.005) with significant variation across centers (range 7-100%; P<0.001) and decreased prescribing rates associated with increased center volume (P=0.004). There was no difference in interstage mortality (P=0.662), change in atrioventricular valve regurgitation (P=0.101), or change in ventricular dysfunction (P=0.134) between groups. In multivariable analysis of all patients, atrioventricular septal defect (odds ratio [OR], 1.84; 95% CI, 1.28-2.65) or double outlet right ventricle (OR, 1.47; CI, 1.02-2.11), and preoperative mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.12-1.68) were associated with increased ACEI prescription. In multivariable analysis of patients with complete echocardiographic data (n=812), ACEI prescription was more common with at least moderate atrioventricular valve regurgitation (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.22-2.31). Conclusions ACEI prescription remains common in the interstage despite limited evidence of benefit. ACEI prescription is associated with preoperative mechanical ventilation, double outlet right ventricle, and atrioventricular valve regurgitation with marked inter-center variation. ACEI prescription is not associated with reduction in mortality, ventricular dysfunction, or atrioventricular valve regurgitation during the interstage.