Bronchial Artery Embolization in Pediatric Pulmonary Hemorrhage: A Single-Center Experience

Zhao QM, Zhao L, He L, Wu L, Lu Y, Chu C, Wang LB, Niu C, Liu F.J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2020 May 23:S1051-0443(19)30937-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2019.11.007. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32457013



Purpose: To explore the safety and effectiveness of bronchial artery (BA) embolization (BAE) in children with pulmonary hemorrhage.

Materials and methods: Between February 2016 and February 2019, 41 patients (median age, 4 y; interquartile range, 2.3-8 y; median weight, 17.6 kg; interquartile range, 12.3-23.6 kg) underwent BAE. The indication of BAE included massive hemoptysis in 10 patients (24.4%), recurrent hemoptysis in 18 patients (43.9%), and refractory anemia in 13 patients (31.7%). The main etiology of pulmonary hemorrhage included pulmonary hemosiderosis (58.5%), congenital heart disease (17.1%), and infection (14.6%). A retrospective review was conducted of clinical outcomes of BAE.

Results: There were 44 embolization sessions, with a total of 137 embolized vessels. Pulmonary hemorrhage was caused by BAs in 30 cases, nonbronchial systemic arteries plus BAs in 10, and nonbronchial systemic arteries in 1. Embolic particles were used in 30 cases (24 polyvinyl alcohol [PVA] and 6 microsphere), coils in 9 cases, and particles plus coils in 5 cases (4 PVA and 1 microsphere). Technical success (ability to embolize abnormal vessel) was achieved in 97.6% of patients (40 of 41), and clinical success (complete or partial resolution of hemoptysis within 30 days of embolization) was achieved in 90.2% (37 of 41). There was 1 procedure-related complication (2.4%) of cerebral infarction and 1 death from multiple-organ dysfunction (2.4%). Bleeding-free survival rates at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were 92.5%, 83.9%, 83.9%, and 70.8%, respectively.

Conclusions: BAE is a safe and effective procedure in children with pulmonary hemorrhage.