Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Diagnosed at <21 Years of Age

Bonura ED, Bos JM, Abdelsalam MA, Araoz PA, Ommen SR, Ackerman MJ, Geske JB.
Am J Cardiol. 2020 Apr 15;125(8):1249-1255. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.01.027. Epub 2020 Jan 28.
PMID: 32088002
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is the most common inherited cardiomyopathy, with varied timing of phenotypic and clinical presentation. Literature describing cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in young patients with HC is limited. This study included patients diagnosed with HC at young age (<21 years) between January 1990 and January 2015 who underwent transthoracic echocardiography and CMR with assessment of LGE at a single tertiary referral center. LGE was quantified via a method of 6 standard deviations and patients were grouped based upon presence or absence of LGE (≤1% and >1% LGE, respectively). Sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk was assessed in patients >16 years of age using the European SCD risk score. A composite outcome of New York Heart Association class III-IV symptoms, aborted SCD, heart transplantation, and all-cause mortality was assessed via Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank analysis. Overall, 126 patients were included (78 male; 62%). Median age of diagnosis was 15 (12 to 18) years. LGE was present in 81 (64%) patients, although only 4 (3%) patients had LGE >15%. Median age at CMR imaging was 19 (15 to 23) years. Patients with LGE had greater wall thickness (25 ± 8 mm vs 22 ± 7 mm, p = 0.01). Median European SCD risk score was 4.7 (2.9 to 6.5). Median follow-up was 6.5 (2.5 to 13) years with 26 patients (21%) meeting the composite outcome. There were no significant differences in composite outcome since age of diagnosis when stratified by presence/absence of LGE (p = 1.0). The presence of LGE in young HC patients was not an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Wall thickness was greater in patients with LGE. There remains a need for further evaluation of this unique HC cohort.