Congenital systemic venous drainage obstruction: A case report

Sarmento JA, Granja S, Madureira AJ, Casanova J, Moreira J.J Card Surg. 2020 May 13. doi: 10.1111/jocs.14630. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32403179



Background: Vena cava anomalies are rare congenital defects due to incorrect development during fetal life, ranging from minor asymptomatic anatomic variations to complex life-threatening abnormalities. Echocardiography plays a fundamental role in the diagnosis, with advanced imaging techniques allowing detailed anatomic delineation. Invasive cardiology techniques are a promising therapeutic approach, but surgery is probably the best option when diffuse compromise of the systemic veins is present.

Case report: An 8-month-old infant presenting episodes of labial cyanosis and a failure to thrive was diagnosed with severe superior vena cava (SVC) stenosis at the right atrium ostium, with decompression via azygos vein and mild inferior vena cava (IVC) stenosis. The patient was referred for surgery, with IVC enlargement and removal of a fibromuscular tissue band on the anterior aspect of the SVC ostium. At a 6-month follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic, with excellent surgical outcome. To the authors’ knowledge, only two cases of congenital SVC stenosis have been previously described.