[Noonan syndrome: genetic and clinical update and treatment options]


Carcavilla A, Suárez-Ortega L, Rodríguez Sánchez A, Gonzalez-Casado I, Ramón-Krauel M, Labarta JI, Quinteiro Gonzalez S, Riaño Galán I, López-Siguero JP.An Pediatr (Barc). 2020 May 31:S1695-4033(20)30160-0. doi: 10.1016/j.anpedi.2020.04.008. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32493603 Free article. Spanish.



Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common genetic condition characterised by short stature, congenital heart defects, and distinctive facial features. NS and other clinically overlapping conditions such as NS with multiple lentigines (formerly called LEOPARD syndrome), cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, or Costello syndrome, are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins of the RAS-MAPKinases pathway. Because of this shared mechanism, these conditions have been collectively termed «RASopathies». Despite the recent advances in molecular genetics, nearly 20% of patients still lack a genetic cause, and diagnosis is still made mainly on clinical grounds. NS is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, with variable expressivity and a changing phenotype with age, and affects multiple organs and systems. Therefore, it is essential that physicians involved in the care of these patients are familiarised with their manifestations and the management recommendations, including management of growth and development. Data on growth hormone treatment efficacy are sparse, and show a modest response in height gains, similar to that observed in Turner syndrome. The role of RAS/MAPK hyper-activation in the pathophysiology of this group of disorders offers a unique opportunity for the development of targeted approaches.