Risk of coronary artery disease in adults with congenital heart disease: A comparison with the general population

Kuijpers JM, Vaartjes I, Bokma JP, van Melle JP, Sieswerda GT, Konings TC, Bakker-de Boo M, van der Bilt I, Voogel B, Zwinderman AH, Mulder BJM, Bouma BJ.
Int J Cardiol. 2020 Apr 1;304:39-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.11.114. Epub 2019 Nov 18.
PMID: 31767384
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Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) will increasingly determine outcome in the aging adult congenital heart disease (CHD) population. We aimed to determine sex-specific incidence of CAD in adult CHD patients throughout adulthood, compared to the general population.

Methods and results: We followed 11,723 adult CHD patients (median age 33 years; 49% male; 57% mild, 34% moderate, 9% severe CHD) from the Dutch CONCOR registry, and two age-sex-matched persons per patient from the general population for first CAD event in national registers (period 2002-2012). Incidence rates were estimated using smoothed hazard functions. CAD risk during follow-up, stratified by CHD severity, was compared using proportional subdistribution hazards regression. In ACHD patients, 103 CAD events (43 women) occurred over 60,456 person-years. Rates per 1000person-years increased from 0.3(95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.6) at age 20 to 5.8(3.7-8.9) at 70 years in female, and from 0.5(0.3-1.0) to 7.8(5.1-11.8) in male patients. Compared to the general population, relative risk was 12.0(2.5-56.3) in women and 4.6(1.7-12.1) in men aged 20 years. Relative risk declined with age, remaining significant up to age ~65 years in women and ~50 years in men. In patients with mild, moderate and severe CHD, CAD risk was 1.3(0.9-1.9), 1.6(1.0-2.5) and 2.9(1.3-6.9) times increased compared to the general population, respectively.

Conclusions: We found increased CAD risk in adult CHD patients, with greater relative risk at younger age, in women and those with more severe CHD. These results underline the importance of screening for and treatment of CAD risk factors in these patients.