Gabriel GC, Young CB, Lo CW.Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2020 May 14:S1084-9521(19)30166-1. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.04.017. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32418658 Review.
An essential role for cilia in the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease (CHD) has emerged from findings of a large-scale mouse forward genetic screen. High throughput screening with fetal ultrasound imaging followed by whole exome sequencing analysis recovered a preponderance of cilia related genes and cilia transduced cell signaling genes among mutations identified to cause CHD. The perturbation of left-right patterning in CHD pathogenesis is suggested by the association of CHD with heterotaxy, but also by the finding of the co-occurrence of laterality defects with CHD in birth defect registries. Many of the cilia and cilia cell signaling genes recovered were found to be related to Hedgehog signaling. Studies in mice showed cilia transduced hedgehog signaling coordinates left-right patterning with heart looping and differentiation of the heart tube. Cilia transduced Shh signaling also regulates later events in heart development, including outflow tract septation and formation of the atrioventricular septum. More recent work has shown mutations in cilia related genes may also contribute to valve disease that largely manifest in adult life. Overall, these and other findings show cilia play an important role in CHD and also in more common valve diseases.