The Compensatory Reserve Index Responds to Acute Hemodynamic Changes in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease: A Proof of Concept Study


Ehrmann DE, Leopold DK, Phillips R, Shahi N, Campbell K, Ross M, Zablah JE, Moulton SL, Morgan G, Kim JS.Pediatr Cardiol. 2020 May 30. doi: 10.1007/s00246-020-02374-3. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32474738



Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) who undergo cardiac procedures may become hemodynamically unstable. Predictive algorithms that utilize dense physiologic data may be useful. The compensatory reserve index (CRI) trends beat-to-beat progression from normovolemia (CRI = 1) to decompensation (CRI = 0) in hemorrhagic shock by continuously analyzing unique sets of features in the changing pulse photoplethysmogram (PPG) waveform. We sought to understand if the CRI accurately reflects changing hemodynamics during and after a cardiac procedure for patients with CHD. A transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TcPVR) model was used because left ventricular stroke volume decreases upon sizing balloon occlusion of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and increases after successful valve placement. A single-center, prospective cohort study was performed. The CRI was continuously measured to determine the change in CRI before and after RVOT occlusion and successful TcPVR. Twenty-six subjects were enrolled with a median age of 19 (interquartile range (IQR) 13-29) years. The mean (± standard deviation) CRI decreased from 0.66 ± 0.15 1-min before balloon inflation to 0.53 ± 0.16 (p = 0.03) 1-min after balloon deflation. The mean CRI increased from a pre-valve mean CRI of 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.70] to 0.77 (95% CI 0.71-0.83) after successful TcPVR. In this study, the CRI accurately reflected acute hemodynamic changes associated with TcPVR. Further research is justified to determine if the CRI can be useful as an early warning tool in patients with CHD at risk for decompensation during and after cardiac procedures.