Time-trend population analysis


Walter K, Katharina SS, Martin C, Roland W.

Infection. 2020 Apr 30. doi: 10.1007/s15010-020-01433-4. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 32356253

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Purpose: In 2007, antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) guidelines for infective endocarditis (IE) changed, but the possible influence on the annual incidences of pediatric IE is unclear.

Methods: We studied the clinical and epidemiologic impact of AP change by comparing two time periods before and after change of AP guidelines in a tertiary care center as referral center for a total population of more than 4,500,000 inhabitants.

Results: After change of AP guidelines, twenty-five patients were diagnosed for IE at a median age of 6.9 years (range 0.1-19.4, female 48%). Modified Duke criteria were fulfilled for definite (12/25; 48%), or probable IE (13/25; 52%). The frequency of IE (cases per 1000 hospitalized patients) increased from 0.37% (1995-2005) to 0.59% (2006-2017) [p = 0.152], the annual incidence of IE (cases per 1000 CHD patients, < 20 years of age) increased from 0.195 ‰ to 0.399 ‰ [p = 0.072]. Postoperative IE (13/25; 52%), was associated mostly with prosthetic pulmonary valves (12/13; 92%). Pathogens were staphylococci spp. (8/25; 32%), streptococci spp. (7/25; 28%), HACEK (3/25; 12%), other (4/25; 16%), or culture-negative (3/25; 12%). Treatment included antibiotics (25/25; 100%), and cardiac surgery (16/25; 64%). The clinical findings and complications of pediatric IE including mortality (2/25; 8%) did not differ between the two time periods.

Conclusions: Pediatric IE remains a severe cardiac disease with a comparable clinical picture. Unless increasing absolute case numbers of IE, the relative case number of IE remains stable despite AP change. The high number of prosthetic pulmonary valve associated IE needs further evaluation and therapeutic alternatives.